YAHWEH

June 18, 2013
Inscription at Soleb Photo by Frenz 4 Jesus

Inscription at Soleb
Photo by Frenz 4 Jesus

The Name Yahweh in Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts

Note:  This article was published on Saturday, January 9, 2010.  I posted it the very next day on my original news blog also called “Wings of the Wind.”   It was posted over 2 years before I posted this article about Thutmose III.  This post has different and better pics.

I find it interesting that the following article seems to say two different things.  It states:

“The term Shasu is found in a variety of New Kingdom hieroglyphic texts including the military, administrative, and diplomatic documents of pharaohs Thutmosis III (my emphasis), Amenhotep II, Thutmosis IV, Amenhotep III, Akhenaton, Seti I, Ramses II, Merneptah, and Ramses III.”

It then goes on to state:

“If the group in question were Yahweh followers who never went to Egypt, why are they absent in topographical lists from the early period of the 18th Dynasty, for example, from the extensive topographical lists of Thutmosis III?”  (again my emphasis)

There is a difference between hieroglyphic texts and topographical lists.  It is the difference between a carving on a wall and a settlement.

There are a few of us who believe that Thutmose III (or Thutmosis III) was the great Pharaoh that saw and spoke with Moses. (See the above link.)

It is interesting that, no matter which way one finds the Pharaoh’s name spelled, a name similar to Moses appears in it.

CR

An explanation of the Soleb picture above can be found here.

An explanation of the Amarah-West picture can be found here.

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The Name Yahweh in Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts

By Charles Aling, Clyde Billington and Gordon Govier
Special to ASSIST News Service

ST. PAUL, MN (ANS) – The oldest historical mention of ancient Israel occurs in the Merneptah stele, an Egyptian monument dated to 1208 B.C. But mention of Israel’s God, Yahweh, occurs even earlier in Egyptian inscriptions in conjunction with a group of people called the Shasu.

Photo at numburak.friko.pl

Photo at numburak.friko.pl

Among ancient Egyptian designations for types of foreign peoples in the New Kingdom Period (1550–1070 BC), the term Shasu occurs fairly frequently. It is generally accepted that the term Shasu means nomads or Bedouin people, referring primarily to the nomadic peoples of Syria-Palestine. There are two hieroglyphic references in New Kingdom Period texts to an area called “the land of the Shasu of Yahweh.” Except for the Old Testament, these are the oldest references found in any ancient texts to the God Yahweh.

THE TERM SHASU

The term Shasu is found in a variety of New Kingdom hieroglyphic texts including the military, administrative, and diplomatic documents of pharaohs Thutmosis III, Amenhotep II, Thutmosis IV, Amenhotep III, Akhenaton, Seti I, Ramses II, Merneptah, and Ramses III.

The vast majority of scholars who have written on the Shasu stress that they were a people who were not totally nomadic. There were specific geographic areas associated in Egyptian topographical texts with the Shasu, thus indicating that at least some Shasu lived a somewhat settled existence in defined areas. “Semi-nomadic” is probably a more accurate translation.

The term Shasu is almost exclusively used in New Kingdom texts for semi-nomadic peoples living in parts of Lebanon, Syria, Sinai, Canaan, and Transjordan, and for people groups clearly identified as Semitic herders. The Shasu were rarely if ever under the control of the Egyptian government and were almost always looked upon as enemies of the Egyptians.  For example, at the famous Battle of Kadesh in ca. 1275 BC, there were Shasu soldiers who were allies of the Hittites against Ramses II.

It is very likely that the Egyptians of the New Kingdom Period classified all of the ancient Edomites, Ammonites, Moabites, Amalekites, Midianites, Kenites, Hapiru, and Israelites as Shasu. There is even a reference dating to ca. 1250 BC in Papyrus Anastasi I to a group of giant Shasu living in Canaan who may be identified with the giants encountered by the Israelites at the time of the Exodus.

THE LAND OF THE SHASU OF YAHWEH

Yahweh at Amarah-West Photo by Associates for Biblical Research

Yahweh at Amarah-West
Photo by Associates for Biblical Research

The New Kingdom inscriptions which refer to “the Land of the Shasu of Yahweh” are found in two topographical lists. The lists are found inscribed on the walls of temples, one at Soleb and the second at Amarah-West.

Soleb, a temple dedicated to the god Amon-Re, was built by the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep III around 1400 BC. Today it is located in the nation of Sudan, on the left bank of the Nile about 135 miles south of Wadi-Halfa. Amarah-West, which is also located in Sudan, is a construction of Ramses II in the 13th century. The section of the Amarah-West topographical list which contains the reference to “the land of the Shasu of Yahweh,” is not original with Ramses II, and was almost certainly copied from the earlier list at Soleb.

Egyptologists in general do not question the appearance of the name Yahweh in these two ancient lists.  For example, Donald Redford writes of the reference to Yahweh at Soleb:

For half a century it has been generally admitted that we have here the tetragrammaton, the name of the Israelite god “Yahweh;” and if this be the case, as it undoubtedly is, the passage constitutes the most precious indication of the whereabouts during the late 15th century BC of an enclave revering this god.*

Even though Egyptologists accept the appearance of the name Yahweh in these topographical lists at Soleb and Amarah-West, the implications of its appearance do not seem to have been fully appreciated by Old Testament scholars.  Of course the question remains, who or what is being referred to by the word Yahweh?  Is it a reference to the God of Israel?  Or is it just a reference to a town or city like most of the other Shasu descriptions?

The answer to this is not known with absolute certainty, but even if Yahweh is a place in these hieroglyphic texts, it was clearly a place named after the god Yahweh of the Old Testament.  Anything less seems too coincidental.

There is no topographical site in the entire region today that bears the name Yahweh or anything remotely similar. There is also no biblical reference or ancient historical source that mentions a topographical site named Yahweh.

EGYPTIAN SYNCRETISM AND THE GOD YAHWEH

The Egyptians were known to have worshipped foreign gods and goddesses. The West Semitic goddess Astarte, who probably evolved out of Semitic Ishtar and/or Sumerian Inanna, was a goddess of love and fertility.  She does not appear in Egyptian texts until the reign of Amenhotep II in the 15th century BC, when she is mentioned in that king’s famous sphinx stele.  In the New Kingdom Period Astarte was made a consort of Set and a daughter of Re.  In Egyptian art, Astarte is depicted standing on a horse, with a crown on her head, and holding various weapons.  A temple to her was built at Tell el Daba, biblical Rameses, a city site associated both with the Israelites and the Hyksos.

Another West Semitic female warrior deity revered in Egypt was Anath, who appears as early as the late Middle Kingdom, perhaps as a part of the influx of Semites into Egypt that eventually produced the so-called Hyksos period.  After a brief hiatus in Dynasty 18, Anath enjoyed a resurgence of popularity in Dynasty 19, being credited with military victories of Seti I and his son Ramses II.  The center of her worship was the Delta.

Because of the sexual nature of her worship, Anath was viewed as an associate of a number of sexually-oriented Egyptian deities: Min, Hathor, and Set.  She was depicted either wearing a traditional Egyptian sheath dress or as wearing nothing at all.  She also tended to be shown holding weapons, such as a spear or battle-axe.

Reshef, a Canaanite god of war and thunder, seems to have been introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos.  As king of the netherworld, Reshef was thought to bring plague and war upon humanity. The Egyptians depicted him in a distinctly Syrian style, with kilt, beard, and horned helmet, but he could also be shown wearing the White Crown of Upper Egypt and holding the Egyptian ankh and scepter, or sometimes holding Canaanite weapons.  This, along with Reshef’s insertion as a member of a trinity of deities with the god Min and the goddess Qadesh, shows the marked degree of syncretistic integration of foreign deities into the Egyptian pantheon.

However Yahweh was for some reason treated very differently.  Clearly the Egyptians knew about Yahweh as can be seen in the Soleb and Amarah-West topographical lists, but they did not worship him, and they apparently did not want to worship him.

Nor was Yahweh equated to or identified with any Egyptian deity.  There were no temples to Yahweh built by the Egyptians, nor were there any artistic representations made of him, or in fact even any discussions of him in Egyptian texts. It appears that the ancient Egyptians placed Yahweh into a category all by himself. To say the least, this is very strange for the syncretistic Egyptians.  A possible explanation is that Yahweh was seen by the Egyptians as an enemy God, of an enemy tribal group which was a part of the hated Shasu peoples who lived north of Egypt.

THE SHASU OF YAHWEH AND THE DATE OF THE EXODUS

There are two indisputable facts that Old Testament scholars must face when dealing with these hieroglyphic references to the Shasu of Yahweh. First, there is no doubt that the name of the Israelite God Yahweh appears in these hieroglyphic texts at Soleb and Amarah-West. And second, at Soleb the reference to Yahweh dates to 1400 BC, during the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep III.  In other words Pharaoh Amenhotep III, or his scribes, knew about the Hebrew God Yahweh in 1400 BC. This fact is highly significant when trying to date the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt under Moses.

In Exodus 5:2 Pharaoh answers the first request of Moses to allow the Israelites to go into the desert to worship Yahweh by saying: “Who is Yahweh that I should obey His voice to let Israel go? I do not know Yahweh, and besides I will not let the Israelites go.” Pharaoh appears here to be saying that he had never heard of the God Yahweh.  This interpretation of Pharaoh’s statement is reinforced by Exodus 7:17 where God responds to Pharaoh: “Thus says Yahweh, ‘by this you will know that I am Yahweh, behold I will strike the water that is in the Nile with the staff that is in my hand, and it will become blood.’” (NASV)

In his third meeting with Moses and Aaron after the second plague, Pharaoh clearly recognized Yahweh as some sort of deity and asked Moses and Aaron to pray to Yahweh to remove the plague of frogs (see Exodus 8:8). If the Pharaoh of the Exodus had never before heard of the God Yahweh, this strongly suggests that the Exodus should be dated no later than 1400 BC because Pharaoh Amenhotep III had clearly heard about Yahweh by that time.

CONCLUSION

It is clear that there once was a group of Shasu Bedouin/nomads living in Syria-Palestine who were associated with either a deity or a place named Yahweh.  It is also clear that the name Yahweh was known to the Egyptians in the 18th Dynasty during the reign of Pharaoh Amenhotep III.

But it must be admitted at this point that we also know from the Old Testament that there were other worshippers of Yahweh in Canaan who did not go into Egypt and therefore did not leave Egypt at the time of the Exodus. The question thus arises, were they perhaps the Shasu of Yahweh mentioned at Soleb and Amarah?

Although we do not have all the information that we wish we did, it is significant that there are no mentions of the Shasu of Yahweh in Egyptian texts earlier than the reign of Amenhotep III. If the group in question were Yahweh followers who never went to Egypt, why are they absent in topographical lists from the early period of the 18th Dynasty, for example, from the extensive topographical lists of Thutmosis III?  The reason may very well be because the Shasu of Yahweh were indeed the Israelites and that they were still living in Egypt in the early 18th Dynasty.

The fact that the Shasu of Yahweh first appear in topographical lists under Amenhotep III in ca. 1400 BC fits perfectly with the Early Date of the Exodus, but this fact presents major problems for those scholars who prefer a Late Date for the Exodus during the reign of Pharaoh Ramses II in the 13th century BC.  In any case, these references to Yahweh have been ignored for far too long by both conservative and liberal Bible scholars.

It thus appears very likely that the Shasu of Yahweh, who are mentioned in the topographical texts at Soleb and Amarah-West, were the Israelites who by about 1400 BC had settled into their own land in the mountains of Canaan. It also appears that for the ancient Egyptians the one feature that distinguished the Israelites from all the other Shasu (Semitic herders) in this area was their worship of the God Yahweh.

* Donald B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993), p. 272

Charles Aling, an Egyptologist and chairman of the History Department at Northwestern College (St. Paul, MN), is the primary author of this article, with additional research and editing assistance from Clyde Billington, also a professor of history at Northwestern College, and Gordon Govier, the editor of ARTIFAX magazine. This is a condensed version of an article that appeared in the Autumn 2009 issue of ARTIFAX.

The Name Yahweh in Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts – Commentary

I always enjoy it when evidence of the Bible’s accuracy emerges.  Christians, in the end live by faith, trusting in a book that only God could have written.  I know that men’s hands wrote the words, but the inspiration came from above.

Photo at Amazon.com

Photo at Amazon.com

Years ago, as a young Christian, I wanted proof for Christianity.  I found a book called “Evidence that Demands a Verdict” by a man named Josh McDowell.  It helped me at a time that I needed evidence.

I believe that all archaeological, geologic, historic, and all other areas of study relating to who we are and where we came from solidifies the truth of scripture.  Many interpret “facts” found in various areas of science to point away from the accuracy of the Bible.  I think they are misled by their own presuppositions.  They would accuse me of the same.

Despite the true facts, the Bible has been and will continue to be attacked by its detractors.  For whatever reason, some refuse to fall into the arms of a loving God who continually is ready to meet the real need.

I’ve posted this article because I follow the sciences and am always interested in the latest discoveries.  It never surprises me when an article pops up that give validity to God’s Holy Word.  In an era when even some “Churches” think that Noah on an Ark and a virgin giving birth are just stories, items like this are enjoyable.

Chris Reimers


THE BATTLE OF ARMAGEDDON AND THUTMOSE III

June 23, 2012

Statue of Thutmosis (or Thutmose) III at the museum in Luxor, Egypt. Photo by Crowcombe Al.

Whoaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa!  Who is that man above? Just read the caption and you will see.

This post started when I lost my Bible.  I still haven’t found it and everyone has looked for it.

What does the loss of a Bible have to do with the Battle of Armageddon?  Keep reading and you’ll know.

I put my Bible (and planner) down somewhere at work and it disappeared.  I wasn’t too disappointed because we have Bibles all over the place where I work.   You see, we hand them out to anyone who wants one (We give them the complete NLT…not my favorite but good enough).

I had lost an NASB of pretty good quality.

You know how you put something down somewhere, it “disappears,” and you give up looking for it because you figure it will eventually show up.  That’s where I was for a couple of days and a weekend.

My Bible isn’t the only thing disappearing. Photo by Rev. Xanatos Satanicos Bombasticos (ClintJCL)

(Ignore the picture above.  It has nothing in common with this post except the word “disappear.”)

What does the vanishing Bible have to do with the Battle of Armageddon or an Egyptian king?  Keep reading and you might make a discovery.

People donate Bibles to the place I work.  They come in all shapes, sizes, condition, and translation.  I opened a file cabinet less than a week after I lost my Bible and there it was,  the donated Bible that had intrigued me when it came in.  I had forgotten about it, but now I was glad to see it.  It has become my new work Bible.  I will note the name of the Bible in the footnotes. It is one thick hombre.

My “find”

It is a King James Bible and there is an interesting work in it.  How accurate the work is I don’t know.  But it dates most major Biblical events; things like the creation and the Exodus.  I’ve never heard of it before I saw this one.

I have always been curious about the identity of the Pharaoh that Moses saw as an adult.  The 1965 version of Halley’s handbook gives different possibilities about those who may have oppressed the Hebrews and about the pharaohs who may have denied Moses’ request to “let my people go.”

Halley notes Pharaohs who may have met in the duel over the Hebrews.  They are Amenhotep II (his mummy is at Thebes), and Merneptah (his mummy is in Cairo).  In fact, Halley lists these two as the “two leading opinions.”(1) Dating systems put these pharaohs around 200 years apart with about 10 pharaohs between them.

I found 53 possible exodus candidates in only two other sources (if one includes the Hyksos pharaohs…a group of outsiders that invaded Egypt). I didn’t have to look far to find my 53 (also my age).  Imagine if I had really studied this thing.

Herbie the Love Bug. Photo by Joe Shlabotnik.

Mr. Halley writes “If the exodus was under Merneptah, then Rameses II was the great oppressor of Israel, whose daughter brought up Moses.  (2)

“Thus Moses was brought up either under Thothmes III (Mr. Halley has spelled Thutmose III two different ways) or under Rameses II, both of whom were among Egypt’s most famous kings.” (3)

To repeat, Mr. Halley writes that “Moses led Israel out of Egypt either under Amenhotep II, or under Merneptah. (4)

So, the Hollywood version that is shown on network stations every Easter is wrong according to most scholars.  The Pharaoh in the movie (Yul Brenner) is Ramses II, not a good possibility.

Photo by Minotaur Asterion

Halley writes that the one “thought to have been the Oppressor of Israel” is Thotmes III (also known as Thutmose III), Queen Hatshepsut’s half brother (Other sources call Hatshepsut Thutmose III’s stepmother and aunt).(5)  In any case, she was “regent” the first 20 years of his reign: and “though he despised her, she completely dominated him.”(6)

“After her death, he ruled alone 30 years. He was the greatest conqueror in Egyptian history.” (7)

Halley states “His mummy is at Cairo.” (8)

This would mean that Thutmose the III was pharaoh when Moses was a baby.

Now you are probably wondering what this has to do with my post title.  Hang in there and follow this rabbit trail with me….please?

Very interesting is the fact, again mentioned by Mr. Halley, that “Whichever it was, the MUMMIES OF ALL FOUR have been found.  So we may now see the actual face of the Pharaoh of Moses’ day, and with whom Moses himself had intimate dealings.” (9)

I’ve always been interested in the subject and this Bible that I had run across might lend some insight because of its dating of events.

You can probably guess what I did.

I went to Exodus 2 to see when Moses was born according to my new find. (10)

The date given for Moses birth was March 6, 1542 BC. (11)

Mr. Frank R. Klassen of Laguna Hills California must have spent years studying the Bible and putting dates to events.  We won’t know if he was right until we get to heaven.  I’m sure they have the records up there.

Anyway, I looked to see who the pharaoh was in 1542 B.C., according to Mr. Klassen.

If you are still looking for the connection with Armageddon, I’ll get there.

View through Tel Megiddo valley to Mount Tabor – Photo by vad_levin
Tel Megiddo, mentioned in the Bible as ‘Armageddon’ (in Hebrew words Har Megiddo – הר מגידו ),one of the most important sites for the history and archeology .The valley ,near ‘hill of Megiddo’ ,which will be the site of the final battle in the world between the forces of light and the forces of darkness.

One problem is that different scholars give different dates for the reigns of the pharaohs.

In many dating opinions, 1542 BC would make Ahmose the pharaoh who knew Moses as an infant. Or it was one of the last pharaohs of the 17th dynasty which was the last dynasty of the Middle Kingdom.  If this is true, it depends on how many pharaohs Egypt went through while Moses was in the desert.

Photo by mikecogh

Confused?  Ok, let’s get to the BIG QUESTION.

I went to Exodus 5 for the BIG QUESTION.  When did Moses take the people out of Egypt?   If I could find out the “when,” I could find out the “who.”

According to Mr. Klassen, it was on April 15th, 1462 BC, which in almost all Egyptian dating systems puts Thutmose III, “the greatest conqueror in Egyptian history” as Halley has stated, as the one who faced the adult Moses. (12)

That would mean that while Moses was in the desert all of those years, at least two pharaohs came and went, Thutmose II and the famous Hatshepsut.

So, Moses “met” two pharaohs.  The pharaoh he saw as an adult wasn’t the pharaoh whose home he was taken into.  This is almost certain no matter what dating system one uses.

DRUM ROLL
Photo by trepelu

Now comes the interesting part.  Drum roll please.  If you’ve waded through this far, you deserve some interesting stuff.

If Thutmose III was the man who had his heart hardened – who wouldn’t let the Hebrews go – then there is an interesting fact you should know.

There have been three major “Battles of Armageddon” in history.  The second is recorded in 2 Kings 23: 29-30.  It is generally regarded as having taken place in 609 B.C.

The third occurred in 1918.  You can read about it here. (13)

It is something about the first “Battle of Armageddon” that is the interesting fact.  It was fought and won by Thutmose III, Egypt’s “greatest conqueror.”  You can read about the battle here. (14)

Interestingly, this first “Battle of Armageddon” is described as the first battle ever recorded in detail. Google “first recorded battle in history” and see what you find. (15)

I think that Thutmose III’s scribe exaggerated the victory a bit.

Embellished or not, Thutmose III is highly respected.  Here is a website that calls Thutmose III “The Napoleon of Egypt.” (16)  It also describes the battle of “Megiddo.”

He created the largest empire that Egypt had ever seen. (17)

Akhmenu, built by Thutmose III
Photo by kairoinfo4u

Here is where I take a leap.  I think, unlike most scholars, that Thutmose III was the pharaoh that hardened his heart and would not let the Hebrews go.

Why do I think this?  Well, it fits Mr. Klassen’s Calendarized Study Bible perfectly.

Mr. Klassen puts 80 years between the birth of Moses and his taking of the Hebrews out of Egypt.  Eighty is a match with the Bible.

This is not my only reason.

If you were God, who would you have Moses face?  I’m not God and I don’t know but I’ll take a guess.  I think God would choose the greatest conquering pharaoh of all time. (I’ll get comments on this statement and I welcome them.)

I don’t think it’s a coincidence that Thutmose III fought and won the first recorded battle in history.

I don’t think it’s a coincidence that Thutmose III was the winning leader of the first battle of Armageddon.

I don’t think it’s a coincidence that two men who spent their entire lives working on dating systems came up with dates that would put Thutmose III in the important role of the pharaoh of the exodus.

Mr. Klassen isn’t the only one whose dates fit Thutmose III.

Have you heard of J.R. Church?  He worked his entire life on a dating system.  He is one of my favorite Bible teachers who specialized in Bible prophecy.  He died last year.

The last book that he wrote, Daniel Reveals The Bloodline of the Anti-Christ, J.R. has a timeline in it (in the back).  It is very elaborate but doesn’t mention the Egyptian pharaohs.  You can get more info on J.R.’s book here.

He put the date for the exodus at 1492/1491 on Nisan 15.  This date puts Thutmose III closer to the adult Moses than the other three major possibilities.

Did I mention that Thutmose III was the first pharaoh called Pharaoh? (18)  It means “Great House.”

To see a good picture of Thutmose III, you can go here. (19)

After a study like this, I have many questions, but a main one.

Why haven’t those who’ve studied these things, the real scholars, come to the same conclusion?  Maybe I’m missing something and would be glad to hear it from any of you.

There are many speculations.  There are a few You Tube videos that identify “Firoun” as the pharaoh during “Moses time.”

I looked at the list of all pharaohs known from the 1st to the 31st dynasty and saw no name that was close to Firoun.  Maybe I missed it, but I looked twice and didn’t see it. The closest thing I could find relating to Egyptian pharaohs is the word firon. (20)

In my short study, I didn’t find anyone else who had narrowed it to Thutmose III.  I’m sure there are others out there who have had the same thought.  If you find one, please let me know.

I didn’t go that in depth, but I did find a source that narrows the possibility down to 2, Thutmose III being one of them. (21)

There you have it; a theory from a curious person.

If you are ever in Cairo, stop and see the mummy of Thutmose III and I think you will be facing the man who spoke with a grown Moses.

If you want to save yourself the time and air fare check here. (22)  You see, Thutmose III’s mummy was damaged by grave robbers.  It was “so ruined that later mummymakers used wooden splints tied to what was left of the body to reinforce it.” (23)

Lastly, there is another Battle of Armageddon coming.  It’s referenced in Rev. 16:16.

But, that’s a subject for another time.

Now, if I can only find my lost Bible…

Chris Reimers (24)

P.S.  I could have saved myself some time by Googling “Thutmose III and the exodus.”  But then I wouldn’t have learned anything.  I did the google search as a final check as soon as I finished this draft.  I found one extensive study that agreed with me. (25)  Scanning it I didn’t see the link with Megiddo, however.  And I didn’t see J. R. Church or Mr. Klassen mentioned.  Their dating systems helped me form my conclusions.

I’m glad I did my own work, though it is not as extensive as the only one I could find with the same conclusion at which I arrived.  Steve Rudd feels that the evidence is overwhelming that Thutmose III was the pharaoh of the exodus.  Although someone has been here before, I’ve enjoyed a great journey and maybe added a jot or tittle.  Click here to see Mr. Rudd’s work and see a better picture of Thutmose III.

CR

NOTES:

(1)  Halley’s Handbook, 1965 Ed. pg. 113

(2)  Ibidem

(3)  Ibid

(4)  Ib

(5)  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thutmose_III

(6)  Halley’s Handbook 1965 Ed. pg. 112

(7)  Ibidem

(8)  Ibid

(9)  Ibid pg. 113

(10)               The Klassen Calendarized Study Bible, 1982 ed.

(11)               Ibidem pg. 74

(12)               Ibid pg. 90

(13)               http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/1120670

(14)               http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/egyptmilitary/qt/070607Megiddo.htm

(15)               http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Megiddo_(15th_century_BC)

(16)               http://www.eyelid.co.uk/Thutmose3.html

(17)               http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thutmose_III

(18)               http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharaoh

(19)               http://www.flickr.com/photos/ascarr/7034595625

(20)               http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Firon

(21)               http://www.biblehistory.net/newsletter/moses_pharaoh.htm

(22)               http://ancientegyptia.tripod.com/id11.html

(23)               http://www.mummytombs.com/egypt/pharaohmummies.htm

(24)               Proverbs 3:5-6

(25)               http://www.bible.ca/archeology/bible-archeology-exodus-date-1440bc.htm

============================================

After-note:

Halley's Handbook Photo from Ebay

Halley’s Handbook
Photo from Ebay

It is July 27th, 2013.  I am looking at a more recent edition of Halley’s Handbook, published in 2000. In this version, Merneptah  (1236) is not a possibility for being the Pharaoh that Moses saw.  Here is a quote from the 2000 edition:

“On his stela he (Merneptah) mentions having defeated Israel – ‘Israel is laid waste, his seed is not’ – indicating that Israel was already in the land of Canaan.”

Thus, the two editions do not agree.

They do agree that Amenhotep II is a possible candidate for the pharaoh whom Moses saw.

Rameses II is mentioned in the first 1965 edition as being a possibility of being the pharaoh Moses was raised under.  The 2000 edition states “Some scholars consider him to be the pharaoh of the Exodus.”

In the 2000 edition, Thutmose III is “thought to be one of the oppressors of Israel.”

Despite what wiki states about Rameses II being the greatest pharaoh in history, both versions of Halley’s Handbook states that Thutmose III was the greatest.

Here are two sources that agree:

Was this ancient Egypt’s greatest military leader? (National Geographic)

(I saw this first in Mar. 2020. As far as I can tell, it was posted in 2016. My original post was put up in 2012. There are a few other articles and videos which have been posted after my post.)

“Thutmose III reigned from 1479 BCE to 1425 BCE according to the Low Chronology of Ancient Egypt.”  This wiki date fits not only both Halley’s Handbooks that I have, but also the Bible that I feature in this post (April 15, 1462 B..C.).

Most Biblical sources put the date near this for good reason.  The 2000 edition pictured here makes a case for 1446 B.C.  It has good reason.  It states:

“Since Solomon began to rule in 970 B.C. (Mr. Klassen puts the date at 983 B.C.)  the fourth year of his reign would be 966 B.C.  The text says that the Exodus from Egypt took place 480 years before this; that gives 1446 B.C.as the approximated dated of the Exodus.”

This is how Mr. Klassen gets his date of 1462.  Either way, the dates correspond with the wiki dates on Thutmose III.

Is wiki the ultimate source?  Of course it isn’t.  The Bible is our guide and God chooses not to identify, specifically, the pharaohs during the birth of Moses and during the time of the Exodus.  Therefore, we must speculate.  That is what I have done here.

If you are interested, you can come to your own conclusions.  The above post shares mine.

God’s blessings…

CR


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